My Vision of Leadership

effective-leadership-quotes-vision

Part 1

Leadership has been discussed through many studies and researched by numbers of researchers. In my vision of leadership, it is an ability to help leaders and staffs to do things in a right way. Leadership help people to establish a guidance, to build an inspiring vision and to make innovation based on the existing resources. Leaders with the ability of leadership can map out the target and process to organisation win the competition.

I have summarised four essential characters of leadership that I would like to become, which discussed by Mindtools (2015). And it can help to acquire better understanding of this topic.

First, leadership helps to create an inspiring vision of the future for a firm through several technical tools. By doing this, in order to identify the current situation of a firm, leaders use tools such as PESTEL analysis, SWOT analysis and Porter’s five force model to analysis the situation and resources. A good leader should consider the way their business involved in and the way their competitors behave.

Secondly, good use of leadership can motivating and inspiring staffs. In organisations, people are always have enthusiasm at the beginning when conducting a new mission, however, with the processing of the mission, the enthusiasm may fade, and some people may lose the patience to the original target, especially when a team or firm make changes. Therefore, leadership have the ability to help people get through difficult situation.

Thirdly, as diversity exist in every organisations, and the ability of managing diverse team is different from simply knowing differences among people due to the value of differences need to be identified through appropriate leadership Devoe (1999). And negative attitudes and behaviours from diversity may harm to the firm. Leadership may help mangers to get through this though mission in organisations. Good use of leadership can help organisations to acquire more resources, ideas and benefits.

Fourthly, leadership is essential when organisation facing the change. Organisational change always come with resistance, which brings negative effect to firms. When facing the resistance to change, under the leadership of top level managers, people have chance to communicate, participate, negotiate and cooperate together (Hultman, 2003). More importantly, leadership helps firm to establish a well-organised change that bring long term benefit to it, and sustainable development will be achieved.

When talking about a person who inspires me most in terms of the leadership. It is no doubt that the Ex-CEO of Apple Plc. Steve Jobs set a great example to me. The leadership style of Jobs was quite different with others. In his point of view, a good leader should allow people to make innovation or to create some, but not to limit them to work with regular rules (Julie, 2011). With the leadership from Jobs, Apple becomes a highly collaborate company without committees. High level leaders filters down their ideas to tremendous teamwork through the company. People have high level of trust to each other based on Jobs’ leadership without being supervision all the time (Moltz, 2015). That is what I think the most successful leadership in organisations.

Part 2

In terms of the personal experience of leadership, the most impressive example can be derived from the group work of assignments. At that time, I was allocated to a group with two people from different countries who have unique personal characters and creative ideas. At the beginning, I was voted as the team leader of this small group, however, I found it was a tough mission for me due to the “diversity” of the group members. As members always come up with their own ideas and I was not able to combine all the ideas together. Hence, none of my group mates feel confidence with the work under my leadership. This aware me of the lack of my leadership ability. Therefore, I realised that in my chosen industry, I should develop my leadership more specific, or establish it in different ways just like what Steve Jobs did. I would like to give more space and chance to staffs, and to create a comfortable environment for them to communicate and exchange the ideas.

During my following study of MBA courses, I would like to develop leadership with more communication skill. According to (Prive, 2012), a good leader tend to be a good listener, and excellent communication skills contribute to establishing collaboration of the project.

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References:

Devoe, D. 1999. Managing a diverse workforce. San Mateo, CA: InfoWorld Media Group.

Julie, C. 2011. “The Legacy of Steve Jobs and Record of Apple will live on” Available at: http://www.psychologytoday.com. [Accessed on 19th March]

Hultman, K. 2003. “Managing resistance to change,” Encyclopedia of Information Systems, Vol, 3, pp, 693-705

Moltz, B. 2015. Steve Jobs’ Style: Everything We Know About Managing Is Wrong. [Online] Available at: https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/articles/steve-jobs-style-everything-we-know-about-managing-is-wrong/ [Accessed on: 14th March]

Prive, T. 2012. Top 10 Qualities That Make A Great Leader. [Online] Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/tanyaprive/2012/12/19/top-10-qualities-that-make-a-great-leader/#2357de653564 [Accessed on 29th March]

 

Managing Organisational Change

Part 1

It can’t be denied that one of the most essential problems for managers in organisation is how to deal with organisational change, and in any change progress, resistance will appear. As Mullins (2010) indicated that “there is little management can do about resistance to change”. The same argument was provided by Baker (1989). In his paper, Baker suggested that resistance is inevitable in organisations, and inept management strategies can lead to accelerating the resistance to change. Meanwhile, he explored the reason for resistance to change in firms and provided few researches and studies to support his point of view. Other researchers such as Harrington (2006) examined the reasons for the occurring of resistance that is because people are control-oriented, and they are easily to lose control when environments are disrupted. And in his paper, he suggested that people must understand the reasons behind resistance, thus to manage resistance in an effective way. Moreover, Lawrence (1969) explored the nature of resistance to change through discuss the studies from different researchers, and, she gave suggestion on how to deal with resistance to change appropriate management actions.

Part 2

It has been supported that managers play important roles in order to avoid and overcome resistance to change. Although resistance of change makes management harder, there still exist many methods for mangers to solve the problem (Hultman. 2003). Furthermore, many other researchers provided different methods to support that the resistance to change can be managed in organisations. For example, Jacoby (2011) identified that there are four reasons result in resistance to change (see figure 1).

» Strategies for Managing Resistance to Change

Figure 1. Reasons for resistance to change. (Jacoby, 2011)

And also, writer provided six strategies in order to dealing with the change resistance. Which can be concluded in Table 1.

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Table 1. Strategies of Managing resistance of change. (Jacoby, 2011)

The value that resistance can bring to the change process was discussed through previous studies. The resistance to change on one hand, brings a barrier to the change process of organisations from both personal perspective and organisational perspective. On the other hand, It creates a chance for upper level managers to acquire clear understanding of the exist problems of the firm. More importantly, in the article from Tikka (2010), the benefit of resistance to change can be recognised as:

  1. Resistance helps to against issues that cause fear and anxiety.
  2. Resistance prevents stupid things from happening.
  3. Resistance provide a chance to deploy a strategy to get good ideas implemented.

According to Kotter.com (2016), Kotter’s eight-step change model is recommended to use by managers in this passage. Comparing with many other theories that focus on how to make the change, this 8-step organizational change model concentrate on how to lead the change. The first step is to create a sense of urgency in terms of the need for change, which help employees to have motivation to change. Second step is to build a guiding coalition. This process aims to convince people that change is necessary with a strong leadership and support from managers. The third step is to create a vision for change. Because a clear vision may help employees to understand what the manager asking them to do. Forth step is to make communication with the vision of change. Fifth step focus on remove any obstacles of the change. Sixth step help the organization to create a short-term wins from the change. Seventh step aims to build on the change in order to identify what can be improved. The final step is to keep the change and to make it as a part of corporate culture.

Kotter-8-step

An example of well-organised organisational change can be learn from Steve Jobs (1955-2011). After Steve return to the company in 1997, he introduced the radical change according to his management philosophies. Profit was made through his “unusual” leadership in terms of the change in organisation’s core capabilities. The innovation he made was the heart of Apple’s core competitive. He encouraged the change from customer satisfaction, brand management, product quality, services and economic reserves. The strong leadership of Steve Jobs help the success of implementing of the organisational changes in Apple Inc. (Julie, 2011)

To conclude, the organisational change is one of the most essential process in the development of the company. A well-organised change can bring long term benefit to the firm and help it with sustainable development. In my chosen industry, the management model can be chosen as a Kotter’s 8-step model, which aims to focus on the leadership from the high level managers to the bottom. Moreover, when facing the resistance to change, managers need to have the ability to communicate, participate, support, and negotiate and cooperate.

References:

Baker, S. 1986. Managing Resistance to Change. Library Trends. Vol, 38, pp, 53-61.

Harrington, J. 2006. Managing Resistance to Change. [Online] Available at: http://www.qualitydigest.com/sept02/columnists/jharrington.shtml [Accessed on: 19th March]

Hultman, K. 2003. “Managing resistance to change,” Encyclopedia of Information Systems, Vol, 3, pp, 693-705

Jacoby, J. 2011. Strategies for Managing Resistance to Change. [Online] Available at: http://blog.emergentconsultants.com/2011/04/05/strategies-for-managing-resistance-to-change/ [Accessed on: 19th March]

Julie, C. 2011. “The Legacy of Steve Jobs and Record of Apple will live on” Available at: http://www.psychologytoday.com. [Accessed on 19th March].

Lawrence, P. 1969. How to Deal With Resistance to Change. [Online] Available at: https://hbr.org/1969/01/how-to-deal-with-resistance-to-change. [Accessed on: 19th March]

Tikka, A. 2010. The Benefits of Change Resistance. [Online] Available at: http://www.pmhut.com/the-benefits-of-change-resistance [Accessed on: 19th March]

Leadership VS. Management

Part 1

It has been debated that the relationship between Leadership and management over the past few decades. The terms leadership and management was defined by many people and they carry different connotations or use interchangeably in diverse situations (Clawson, 2009). Leadership and management has been the factors that influence the success and failure of an organisation, the basic concept of these two terms are easy to understand, however, while the implementation of leadership principles and management skills, huge amount of information may lead to confusion and debate between these two concepts. In order to become success in businesses, organisations need to have a clear view on identifying the similarity and differences between leadership and management.

Similarities:

Through the study of Bryman (1992), there are some activities that both leadership and management involve. Such as conceptualising what needs to be done, aligning people and resources, taking an active role and creating success. Those similar activities help to get better and effective performance across both leadership and management of a firm. Other similarities was believed by Gordon (2014) that both of them include a decision-making process, and none of them can work without other people’s participation.

Differences:

The differences between leadership and management was discussed wildly among different researchers. According to the research of Young and Dulewicz (2008), in short, leadership is a skill of leading others to get the right direction in an organisation and management is a systematic skill to organise the procedure or process efficiently. The key point of the differences can be concluded as follows:

Based on the previous research, we can explore the differences in depth. First of all, Leadership means to set a right direction with appropriate strategies for others, and aims to producing the changes needed to achieve the target, but management is about to set up a target for the future and to complete it step by step through allocating resources. (Ratcliffe, 2013), Moreover, the leadership is more likely an inductive method to find the model or discipline by collecting data and analysing resources in order to create direction, vision, strategy and to make better change for the industry, while management is like a deductive methods used to find out the ordering in complicated environment and to confirm the steps and details of the way to achieve the target with efficiency (Kristina, et. al. 2009).

 

Part 2

In terms of the suggestion that “there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013)”. I agree with this point of view. Due to the diversity in orginasations, there is not only one approach can be conducted through each firm as different people have different characters that would not be fitted in only one approach. In my opinion, the management approach should be conducted in a flexible way, and there are five factors which need to be considered as the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates for manager. It can be concluded in the following few parts. First of all, an effective managers need to have their own plan and link it with the company’s overall strategic plan. Secondly, managers should ensure that the subordinates have time to do the work with their capability, and the value-added work should be done when manager managing the subordinates. Then, managers need to set context and boundaries for subordinates in order to link the organisation from top to bottom. Setting the right context may help managers to control the process of the work that doing by subordinates. Next, an efficient manger should have the ability to delegate work to others with correct methods. Finally, creating a feedback loops help mangers to evaluate the quality of the work that has been done.

Take Apple Inc. as an example. The ex-CEO Steve Jobs has unique view of management. According to Moltz (2015), Jobs did not build up a management style as “usual”, which means, he did the opposite way of traditional managing that suitable for the development of Apple Inc. For instance, Jobs teach people do not confuse consensus with collaboration, and in the video, Jobs says he would like to collaborate with other talent people, and to admit different decisions and ideas. Therefore, if I were a manager, I should not only get consensus with subordinates but also to collaborate with them. Moreover, Jobs believes that the ends always justify the means. This means he would use every methods to get what he wanted. Finally, Jobs has a clear view of the differences between leadership and management. Some people considered that Jobs was not a good manager, however, what he managed to be done is to become a great leader of a company.

To conclude, in my point of view, a good manager should not be only good at conducting management skills to the subordinates, but also have a clear view to identify the difference between leadership and management, which can help the firm to get competitive advantage among others.

 

References:

 

Bryman, A 1992. Leadership in Organizatons. [Online] Available at: http://courses.washington.edu/ilis580/readings/Bryman22.pdf [Accessed on: 14th March]

 

Clawson, G. 2009. Level Three Leadership: Getting Below the Surface. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle Rive, New Jersey.

 

Kristina, G. et, al. 2009. Leadership vs. Management. [Online] Available at: http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/elk1/elk1103/elk1103.pdf. [Accessed on: 14th March]

 

Moltz, B. 2015. Steve Jobs’ Style: Everything We Know About Managing Is Wrong. [Online] Available at: https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/articles/steve-jobs-style-everything-we-know-about-managing-is-wrong/  [Accessed on: 14th March]

 

Ratcliffe, R. 2013. What’s the difference between leadership and management? [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/careers/difference-between-leadership-management. [Accessed on: 14th March]

 

Young, M and Dulewicz, V. 2008. Similarities and Differences between Leadership and Management: HighPerformance Competencies in the British Royal Navy. British Journal of Management. Vol.19, pp, 17-32.

Managing Diversity

As Ibarra and Hansen (2011) has mentioned that:

“Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led. The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders”

The diversity in the workplace is seen as an essential element for managers in organisations. The advantages and challenges has been considered by many researchers previously. Kelli, et. al. (2002) has suggested that having diverse teams in one organization are benefit to both of the associates and the employers. In their opinion, if a firm can show the respect to different individuals, the productivity can be increased although associates are interdependent in the workplace. Other researchers such as Esty, et al. (1995) indicated that the lawsuits can be reduced while the marketing opportunities, recruitment, creativity and business image can be increased. Other advantages such as increased adaptability, broader service range, variety of viewpoints and more effective execution (Josh, 2004).

However, the challenges or disadvantages were proposed by other people. First of all, Devoe (1999) suggested that managing diverse team is different from simply knowing differences among people, because diversity management requires manager to recognize the value of differences, to combat discrimination and to promote inclusiveness. Furthermore, because of the prejudice and discrimination, managers would be challenged with low work productivity and losses in personnel. Moreover, working relationships may also be harmed by negative attitudes and behaviours from organizational diversity.

For Apple Inc., it seems the diverse management is one of the most essential concept for this company. According to Apple’s website, they rely on their employees’ diverse backgrounds and perspectives to spark innovation. Therefore, employees or shareholders who can make priority of diversity and create opportunities for the next generation would be Apple’s first choice (Apple Inc., 2016).

Moreover, the leader of Apple Inc., the CEO Tim Cook announced that apple has always seeking a way to running different with different people with different view of the world. And according to Guglielmo (2015), Tim Cook said the diversity is the key factor to success, and explained at the WWDC that why Apple need more women and other region people in tech matters to this company and the rest of the technology industry. Apple aims to create opportunities for employees from all over the world to become part of Apple, and they believes that race, age, gender, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation would not be problems for people who want to join Apple and to deliver the services to customers.

To see the diverse progress of apple, there are 35% of the employees are women who hired by apple globally and 19% people from Asian in US market.

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In terms of managing a diverse team in organisation, the most important aspect is to see everyone as equal. For example, Apple allow all of their employees to “enjoy the same right regardless of their gender or gender identity, ethnicity, race, veteran status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, or other differences”. Another aspect is to mix the different culture together. In Apple Plc. A group called Diversity Network Associations (DNAs) aims to represent different ethnicities, religions, orientations, and interests for the company, and many talent people from other big companies previously are hired by Apple to engage with others and learn from others in order to come up with new ideas.

Moreover, the diversity for supplier is also need to be considered by mangers in organisation. For instance, Apple Plc. launched supplier diversity program in 1988 in order to seek to suppliers who have the same value by spending more than 3 billion dollars with over 6 thousands suppliers by the end of 2015 (Apple Plc., 2015).

In conclusion, it can be found obviously that a diverse team can help organisations to acquire much more resources, ideas and benefits and even to make the firm unique. Good management of diverse team my help organization gain competitive advantages in the market place, however, different culture, personalities and ideas sometimes may lead to more challenge to a firm. Requirement of the management may high because they must have the ability to be inclusive differences of members and to think about how to make them together. Furthermore, employees need to learn how to understand each other and to have the ability to be proficient.

References:

Apple Plc. 2015. Inclusion inspires innovation. [Online] Available at: http://www.apple.com/diversity/ [Accessed on 1st March]

Devoe, D. 1999. Managing a diverse workforce. San Mateo, CA: InfoWorld Media Group.

Esty, K. and Schorr-Hirsh, M.1995. Workplace diversity. A manager’s guide to solving problems and turning diversity into a competitive advantage. Avon, MA: Adams Media Corporation.

Guglielmo, C. 2015. Apple’s Tim Cook says the ‘best products’ are born from diversity. [Online] Available at: http://www.cnet.com/news/apple-tim-cook-says-best-products-are-born-from-diversity/ [Accessed on 1st March]

Josh, G. 2004. Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges and Solutions. [Online], Available at: http://www.multiculturaladvantage.com/recruit/diversity/diversity-in-the-workplace-benefits-challenges-solutions.asp [Accessed on: 1st March]

Kelli, G. et. al. 2002. Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools. IFAS Extension. University of Florida.

The Importance of Ethical Leadership

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1. Ethical Leadership

Rubin (2010) defined ethical leadership as: “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making”. The ethical leadership of leaders in every organisations have essential influence on the success of the enterprise. In this blog, I will discuss the importance of the ethical leadership of nowadays organisations.

1.1 Deontological (Rules)

According to James (1997), there are two main ethic principles theories that are Deontological and Teleological ethics. Deontological was purposed by Orend (2000) that it is a moral system that focus on the adherence to independent moral rules and duties, which is called duty-based ethics. The basis of this theory is people need to do the right thing according to the principles and do not consider whether the consequences is good or not. The good points of deontological theory can be concluded, first of all, the value of human is emphasised due to it provides a basis of human rights. Then, this theory provides the certainty of the result. Finally, this theory helps to deal with intentions and motives. However, deontological may cause the absolutist in a firm or to result in some acts that may harm to the organisation.

1.2 Teleological (Consequentialist)

Teleological AKA consequentialism theory was defined as a result-based ethics theory that based on the principle: The result is much more important than the act, which means any method of achieving a good result is acceptable (John, 2010). Different from duty-based ethics, the use of teleological theory has two principles. First, “whether an act is right or wrong depends only on the results of that act”, second, “The more good consequences and act produces, the better or more right that act” (BBC Ethics). In terms of the use of teleological theory in a firm, the leader should choose the action that maximises the profit or benefit. The advantages of this theory is that a good result can be reached, however, the drawback is that harmful things may occur while achieving the “correct” results.

1.3 4V model

The 4V model was created by Dr. Bill Grace as an ethical framework combine internal beliefs and value with external behaviors and actions of a firm in order to achieve more benefit (Grace, 1999). This model was developed in the foundation of moral, human, leadership and community development and the model was presented through four determine matrix they are values, vision, voice and virtue.

According to Centre for ethical leadership (2016), the values and vision can be used to identify the organisaiton by providing the objectives and direction. Voice is the way to present the vision and values in order to motivate others in a group. Virtue is used on leadership in order to help people to think about whether the value, vision and voice are good or not.

  1. Enterprise example

A good example of ethical leadership was practiced by the retired President and CEO of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Mike Duke. According to Stolberg (2011), under Duke’s leadership, Walmart was planning to benefit more and more consumers by reduce salt, fat and sugar contents in its food products. Moreover, the price of vegetables and fruits was reduced. The success of this ethical schedule was supported by First Lady Michelle Obama who has efforts on the fight of child obesity.

However, the CEO of Tyco Kozlowski had taken unauthorised bonuses and loans in the amount of $600 million caused a huge violation of ethics leadership in 2005 (Forbes, 2013).

  1. Conclusion

In my opinion, workers and employees of a company need to be restricted by the ethics that have effects on the loyalty and morale to the organisation. Ethical leaders should establish disciplines that help to build up acceptable behaviour and business procedures for every single person in the firm. High level of ethical leadership may stimulate employees in the company to reach goals, however, low level of ethical standards may harm to the business. Moreover, the reputation of a company is also influenced by the level of ethical leadership and good reputation for ethics can enhance the business of the organisation.

 

Ethical Leadership 2

Reference:

BBC Ethics Guide, 2016. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/consequentialism_1.shtml [Accessed on: 9th Feb]

Center for Ethical Leadership. 2016. [Online] Available at: http://www.ethicalleadership.org/concepts-and-philosophies.html [Accessed on: 9th Feb]

Forbes. 2013. 5 Most Publicized Ethics Violations By CEOs. [Online] Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/investopedia/2013/02/05/5-most-publicized-ethics-violations-by-ceos/#79fefd882799 [Accessed on: 9th Feb]

Grace, B. 1999. Ethical Leadership. Seattle WA.

James, B. et, al. 1997. The Influence of Deontological and Teleological Considerations and Ethical Climate on Sales Managers’ Intentions to Reward or Punish Sales Force Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol.16, Iss, 5, pp, 497-506.

John, M. 2010. Ethics: The Basics. John Wiley & Sons. Pp, 104.

Stolberg, S. 2011. Wal-Mart Shifts Strategy to Promote Healthy Foods. [Online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/20/business/20walmart.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 [Accessed on: 9th Feb]

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