It can’t be denied that one of the most essential problems for managers in organisation is how to deal with organisational change, and in any change progress, resistance will appear. As Mullins (2010) indicated that “there is little management can do about resistance to change”. The same argument was provided by Baker (1989). In his paper, Baker suggested that resistance is inevitable in organisations, and inept management strategies can lead to accelerating the resistance to change. Meanwhile, he explored the reason for resistance to change in firms and provided few researches and studies to support his point of view. Other researchers such as Harrington (2006) examined the reasons for the occurring of resistance that is because people are control-oriented, and they are easily to lose control when environments are disrupted. And in his paper, he suggested that people must understand the reasons behind resistance, thus to manage resistance in an effective way. Moreover, Lawrence (1969) explored the nature of resistance to change through discuss the studies from different researchers, and, she gave suggestion on how to deal with resistance to change appropriate management actions.
It has been supported that managers play important roles in order to avoid and overcome resistance to change. Although resistance of change makes management harder, there still exist many methods for mangers to solve the problem (Hultman. 2003). Furthermore, many other researchers provided different methods to support that the resistance to change can be managed in organisations. For example, Jacoby (2011) identified that there are four reasons result in resistance to change (see figure 1).
Figure 1. Reasons for resistance to change. (Jacoby, 2011)
And also, writer provided six strategies in order to dealing with the change resistance. Which can be concluded in Table 1.
Table 1. Strategies of Managing resistance of change. (Jacoby, 2011)
The value that resistance can bring to the change process was discussed through previous studies. The resistance to change on one hand, brings a barrier to the change process of organisations from both personal perspective and organisational perspective. On the other hand, It creates a chance for upper level managers to acquire clear understanding of the exist problems of the firm. More importantly, in the article from Tikka (2010), the benefit of resistance to change can be recognised as:
- Resistance helps to against issues that cause fear and anxiety.
- Resistance prevents stupid things from happening.
- Resistance provide a chance to deploy a strategy to get good ideas implemented.
According to Kotter.com (2016), Kotter’s eight-step change model is recommended to use by managers in this passage. Comparing with many other theories that focus on how to make the change, this 8-step organizational change model concentrate on how to lead the change. The first step is to create a sense of urgency in terms of the need for change, which help employees to have motivation to change. Second step is to build a guiding coalition. This process aims to convince people that change is necessary with a strong leadership and support from managers. The third step is to create a vision for change. Because a clear vision may help employees to understand what the manager asking them to do. Forth step is to make communication with the vision of change. Fifth step focus on remove any obstacles of the change. Sixth step help the organization to create a short-term wins from the change. Seventh step aims to build on the change in order to identify what can be improved. The final step is to keep the change and to make it as a part of corporate culture.
An example of well-organised organisational change can be learn from Steve Jobs (1955-2011). After Steve return to the company in 1997, he introduced the radical change according to his management philosophies. Profit was made through his “unusual” leadership in terms of the change in organisation’s core capabilities. The innovation he made was the heart of Apple’s core competitive. He encouraged the change from customer satisfaction, brand management, product quality, services and economic reserves. The strong leadership of Steve Jobs help the success of implementing of the organisational changes in Apple Inc. (Julie, 2011)
To conclude, the organisational change is one of the most essential process in the development of the company. A well-organised change can bring long term benefit to the firm and help it with sustainable development. In my chosen industry, the management model can be chosen as a Kotter’s 8-step model, which aims to focus on the leadership from the high level managers to the bottom. Moreover, when facing the resistance to change, managers need to have the ability to communicate, participate, support, and negotiate and cooperate.
Baker, S. 1986. Managing Resistance to Change. Library Trends. Vol, 38, pp, 53-61.
Harrington, J. 2006. Managing Resistance to Change. [Online] Available at: http://www.qualitydigest.com/sept02/columnists/jharrington.shtml [Accessed on: 19th March]
Hultman, K. 2003. “Managing resistance to change,” Encyclopedia of Information Systems, Vol, 3, pp, 693-705
Jacoby, J. 2011. Strategies for Managing Resistance to Change. [Online] Available at: http://blog.emergentconsultants.com/2011/04/05/strategies-for-managing-resistance-to-change/ [Accessed on: 19th March]
Julie, C. 2011. “The Legacy of Steve Jobs and Record of Apple will live on” Available at: http://www.psychologytoday.com. [Accessed on 19th March].
Lawrence, P. 1969. How to Deal With Resistance to Change. [Online] Available at: https://hbr.org/1969/01/how-to-deal-with-resistance-to-change. [Accessed on: 19th March]
Tikka, A. 2010. The Benefits of Change Resistance. [Online] Available at: http://www.pmhut.com/the-benefits-of-change-resistance [Accessed on: 19th March]